Indulgence versus restraint describes hedonistic behaviors: how freely can people satisfy their basic needs and desires, how strict social norms are followed and gratification suppressed and regulated.


Restraint (low indulgence versus restraint index)

  • Gratification suppressed and regulated
  • Expects (material) reward for job done well
  • Easily feels treated unfair
  • Status objects important, e.g. phone, laptop, watch, company


Indulgence (high indulgence versus restraint index)

  • Freely satisfy basic needs and behaviour
  • Cannot easily be motivated with material reward
  • Enjoys moment rather than uses time to compare with others
  • Objects need to fulfil purpose not status


 Geert Hofstede interview: